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Pre-eclampsia and high blood pressure in pregnancy

Emergency experiences with pre-eclampsia

Not everyone we interviewed had emergency experiences. It was often possible to manage pre-eclampsia with medication, and the condition did not become more dangerous. However, some women we spoke to had medical emergencies that medication couldn’t resolve. 

For those who had pre-eclampsia and HELLP syndrome, the women were at risk of seizures, strokes, placental abruption (a life-threatening condition for mother and baby where the placenta comes away from the wall of the womb), liver problems and heart failure. Their unborn babies were also at risk of serious health problems or death as a result of being starved of oxygen. This sadly happened to Munirah’s baby, who had severe brain bleeding when she developed pre-eclampsia. She was advised by doctors to terminate her pregnancy at 25 weeks.

Some women needed emergency caesarean sections when complications developed during their pregnancy or labour. Doctors often had to make the decision very quickly. Some women who had stayed in hospital for a while had been warned it could happen at some point; for others, it came as a shock. Some also experienced complications with anaesthetics and heavy bleeding. A few women continued to have or had late-onset of pre-eclampsia after giving birth which could become an emergency.
 

Josie said that there was no real choice about what happened next, other than to have an emergency caesarean section. It became clearer afterwards that she had been in more danger than she realised.

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Age at interview: 45
Sex: Female
Age at diagnosis: 39
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Well there wasn’t a decision really you know. It wasn’t… it wasn’t a decision you know, of any type, it wasn’t like I was choosing to do it. As far as I was concerned I needed to get there as quick as I could and I was, you know desperately worried because I knew, you know… I could interpret the traces by that time; I… you know I knew by what they were saying that things had got, you know very drastic. And what I didn’t know was also that my blood pressure had gone into the ridiculous, you know… to a ridiculous level; like the lower number was something like a 120, and what I didn’t know at the time; it was only after I read my medical notes after, that I realised that was happening and in retrospect I thought how dangerous that must have been, and there must have been a worry about my health at the time. I mean they must have been really, you know very concerned that… well… is it a matter of you'd have a fit wouldn’t you if your blood pressure goes up that high. 
 

At 32 weeks into her pregnancy, Helen X agreed to stay in hospital overnight to check that medication to lower her blood pressure was working. It came as a shock when she was told the situation had become more serious and her baby would be born that day.

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Age at interview: 31
Sex: Female
Age at diagnosis: 31
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And so anyway, eventually on Monday, they decided to put me on medication. And initially they said like, “We’ll put you on medication. We’ll just keep you in overnight, just to make sure the medication’s had an effect on your blood pressure. And then you can probably go home tomorrow morning.” And so anyway I said, “Fine.” So I spent my first night in hospital and I was actually quite happy, because they had the electric beds and I call pull my bed head upright and I was actually comfortable sleeping, and I was like this is great actually. I’m quite happy to be here [laughing]. And then the next morning was when it really kicked off like, so I’m sure it was about 7 in the morning. I just had this army of doctors come in and say, “You’re liver function is so far off, we have to delivery your baby today. It’s going to have to be by caesarean, because you’re too early for any of the drugs we’d give you to induce it to work. So basically you have to have a caesarean and your baby’s coming today, and that’s it.” So I was just [blerrr] [laughs] and then I wanted it, so obviously I’d been anticipating that someone would tell me my blood pressure was better and I could go home. And that’s what happened, and so obviously I just immediately called Michael and said, “Come here now, your baby’s coming today.” And then we just, the rest of that day, I think, we were just completely shell shocked. We just had a parade of, you know, anaesthetists, neonatal specialists, just every single specialist coming in and giving us information that I’m sure didn’t sink it at the time at all, and we just, you know, we were flabbergasted by all these people coming in and out and everything that was going on and all of the rest of it, and its really funny actually. I look at, we have photos from that day, and like one of the anaesthetists came in and he, Michael was all dressed up in the blues to go into surgery, and like there’s this photo of us and we’re both smiling about this day, and I just look back at it now and think ‘how were we smiling?’ [Laughs]. And we’re just, I think we were just shell shocked. We just had no idea of what had hit us, you know, it was so far from what we’d anticipated for the birth of our child. It was just bizarre.
The unfolding of an emergency

Women often spoke about a sudden realisation that things were getting more serious. Lyndsey remembered a “real ‘Oh my God’ moment” and Claire talked about a point when everything “kicked off”. A high blood pressure reading or other test results could signal that a medical emergency was unfolding. This included test results showing liver and kidney problems, that the unborn baby’s heartbeat was dropping (sometimes called fetal distress) and/or low platelet levels in the blood. If these results were picked up at a routine GP or midwife appointment, pregnant women were often sent to hospital for closer monitoring and sometimes treatment. You can read more about these experiences in the section, ‘Realising there is a high blood pressure problem in pregnancy’.
 

After being induced, Claire was monitored overnight. When her health deteriorated and after a scare with her baby’s heartbeat slowing down, it was agreed that a caesarean section would be best.

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Age at interview: 39
Sex: Female
Age at diagnosis: 39
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And then I did have a bleed. So it was a case of, "OK we will continue with the induction at the moment, and you will be monitored overnight." So, I was moved from the delivery room but still in the labour suite.

Onto the ward. And that was…I think it was between half an hour and fifteen minutes obs, so again it wasn’t a restful period. Overnight there was a deceleration where the baby's heartbeat was lost. That was sort of middle of the night, early morning.

So again that was that. The midwife was there thankfully, it wasn’t you know all the alarms going off; the alarms did go off a few times but the midwife was actually there and that was a red button hit and everyone came running, and placed on oxygen, rolled over onto my side, and the baby's heart rate came back, but by then I knew, 'Right, something really isn't, isn't right.' I was probably more aware then that things were getting serious.

That there was perhaps now going to be risks. I hadn’t felt her move as often but again I'd assumed that that was perhaps the stresses of what I was going through, that I maybe wasn’t feeling it because I wasn’t concentrating. So that kind of went on. But they decided to continue with the induction, which again at that point, was the best thing.

And that then changed in the evening. They had come round with soup and a sandwich about 6pm, and I thought, 'OK I've not eaten but I'll try soup; I know I need to for my strength and if you want me to deliver this baby I'm going to have to try and build my strength up and that." I managed one spoonful of soup and projectile vomited everywhere which is embarrassing for me because I had no… you know it just happened. And then it wasn’t till… you know I kind of looked and I thought, 'It's black and it's like lumpy and, you know what's going on?' So, I was still hooked up to the CTG machine as well, it was like, oh you know, I can't get up to clean it, and the midwife came and it was a case, "OK we'll get you cleaned up," and stuff; didn’t seem overly concerned at that point.

Until it happened again and it was a different midwife who then went and spoke to the consultant there, and I believe that’s when he came and checked and said there was fluid on the lungs. My tests, my blood tests still weren't showing everything, that I had sepsis and they started the Sepsis Six treatment.

So that was more medications and things.
 

Kay’s kidneys stopped functioning properly. She thought this caused her to feel over-heated. Doctors and nurses told her that she was very ill, but she didn’t believe it at first.

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Age at interview: 42
Sex: Female
Age at diagnosis: 38
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So I was in a room of four and I felt like I was going to spontaneously combust, that’s how it felt. It felt like I was on fire from the inside. So I went into the sitting room area and opened the window and I literally just hung out of the window in February because I was so hot. 

I thought, I just thought I was going to be sick; I was going to pass out and the end of it I fainted.

Oh gosh

And they came and got me and they rushed me down to intensive care. And I don’t really remember much about it. I know that… I remember being whisked on a trolley through the corridors and I knew that I was down the stairs in the obstetrician unit, and I knew everybody was fussing around me.

And they had that monitor on constantly – you know blowing automatically, blowing it up, checking it had blown up and checking it, and it was something 200 odd over… and I was just like, "Do you know I didn’t know you could go that high." You know what I just wasn’t aware of it. Anyway everything seemed to calm down, and the next day I was back up on the ward, and I felt, 'Whoa that was just a wee blip.'

But they moved me from that day, they removed me to my private room right opposite the nurse's station, and I was like, "Why am I in here?" and they're like, "Because you are the illest woman in here," and still that message didn’t get through. I know I'd felt a bit hot; I know I'd… but I didn’t feel ill. 
 

During labour, the heartrate of Julie’s unborn baby dropped very low. The next steps of a caesarean section happened very quickly.

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Age at interview: 34
Sex: Female
Age at diagnosis: 32
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“We can’t leave you any longer. You’re not well at all.” So they sort of said, “Well we’ll plan to take you to theatre. We’ll get baby out.” So in between him sort of going out, making notes on this, that and the other, [daughter] went into distress. So all the monitors started going berserk because her heart rate dropped right down for quite a long time. So at that point the midwives just took my husband out the room and said, “You need to go and get gowned up. She’s going to theatre now.” And they said, “Whether you come in or not, it depends whether we can get a spinal into her or whether she’s going to have to go to sleep.” Because they didn’t know at that point. So we ended up in theatre so quickly I can’t believe how fast it happens. Ended up in theatre. [Daughter] was delivered and there was meconium which is why she’d gone into distress so she came out, but didn’t do anything. So she then had to be resuscitated, in front of us, which was horrific. 
Sometimes women became so unwell they were sent to an Intensive Care Unit (ICU) or High Dependency Unit (HDU) where they could receive closer monitoring and organ support. Kay was in and out of ICU three times and had an emergency caesarean section to deliver her baby after the final time. This had a huge emotional impact on her: “You go down there, you don’t know if you're coming back”. Sometimes if the baby needed to be delivered very early, the mother needed to be transferred to another hospital which had the appropriate facilities. Munirah was transferred to a hospital with expertise to deliver babies born earlier than 28 weeks.
 

Aileen was in and out of the High Dependency Unit whilst pregnant. Her blood pressure kept climbing and, when she reached 30 weeks, the decision was made that her baby should be delivered.

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Age at interview: 40
Sex: Female
Age at diagnosis: 35
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I was in hospital for two weeks again. But during the two weeks' time I was in and out of HDU. There was a point when they can't control my blood pressure – took me to HDU for one night. They kept an eye on me a bit more on HDU, there's one to one, and then I think the next day blood pressure was stable, they decided me to…decided for me to go back to the ward. So there's a few scares that I had to go back down to HDU and thinking, 'This is it, this is it.'

But then blood pressure got controlled, went back to the ward , and then a couple of days later I had to go back down to HDU and yeah.

And the consultant came and said, "Now that you’ve reached 30 weeks I think this is the best time to get the baby out; we can't control the blood pressure anymore. And we've reached 30 weeks, so we'll just do it." Mm and of course the baby's stopped growing as well.

OK 

Well the growth is slow, and I thought maybe that… OK fine, if the baby's in danger inside me. And we had… because they were continuing with my CTG.

The heart rate dropped several times so they were concerned about that as well.
The way pre-eclampsia does or doesn’t progress can vary widely. Sometimes the health of mother and unborn baby declined very suddenly; in other cases, things gradually became worse. Some women and their partners were in shock and denial about the rapidly changing situation. They often described feeling unprepared emotionally and practically for the arrival of their baby.

It could be very frightening to realise how serious the situation now was. As Tracey explained: “Your life is in someone else's hands and there's nothing you can do about it”. Women often felt a sense of panic amongst the doctors, midwives and nurses too – which added to their fear. But some women were impressed by how calm and efficient their doctors, nurses and midwives had been. Aileen liked having “continuous care” from a midwife in HDU who knew her medical history well so that she didn’t have to keep explaining it. Having lots of medical staff coming into the room could be overwhelming. Tracey recalled “swarms of people appeared from nowhere”, and they didn’t offer her much reassurance.
 

When there were delays with fitting an epidural (spinal anaesthetic), Mairi realised that the situation was time-pressured. Even so, she appreciated the efforts of everyone in the theatre to keep the atmosphere calm.

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Age at interview: 36
Sex: Female
Age at diagnosis: 30
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I think at that point you’ve got no real… you’ve got no knowledge to… I mean I just trust… I like people to trust me as a teacher, so I trusted them that they knew what they were doing. And I remember [doctor’s name] coming back in and he said to me, "I wanted to do this section but I'm not allowed; I've got to pass you on to my boss. It's too cut and dry and we've got to get it out now." But they couldn’t get the spinal in either and it took them four attempts for the spinal, and they got to the fourth one and they said, "We're going to have to phone for the senior anaesthetist to come," and she… just as he walked in she popped it right in, and I remember the consultant said, "Hurry up, get that in, get it in now, we've got to get going, we don’t have time for this." So, it's funny I do remember bits that it was quite time pressured, but then we had [member of staff] the orderly who was asking me what music I wanted to choose. So, I was aware that they were trying to keep it very calm and let's have some Christmas music, and it was all very calm but I remember the consultant getting really snippy with the anaesthetist saying, "Just get it in because we've got to go."
 

There were lots of people in the operating theatre when Helen X had an emergency caesarean section. One of her doctors sent an emergency page out saying she was bleeding, even though she wasn’t, to be sure it was treated urgently.

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Age at interview: 31
Sex: Female
Age at diagnosis: 31
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I can remember going into the room and I can remember sort of looking at all the people and thinking oh my God, and I can remember thinking, oh this is getting a bit serious because one of the anaesthetists or someone came in and said, “Oh we’ve, we’re put out a page for maternal haemorrhage, because we want everyone to come here now. And so then they don’t listen to any pages unless we do something really dramatic, so… yes.” So there were all these people sort of came rushing in at one point, like almost with lunch on their faces kind of thing, going, “Where’s the haemorrhage? Where’s the haemorrhage?” And they were like, “Oh yes, no, its here, we just needed you to come now.” We need to do this baby now kind of thing [laughs]. I can remember lying there thinking, oh it must be getting serious now, they really want him out now, kind of thing. But they were all extremely kind of relaxed in terms of talking to me and that sort of thing and, and as I say, [husband] came in, he couldn’t stay for the surgery, but I remember him coming in, and they said, “Okay we’re going, you know, we’re going to start giving you something now.” And I can remember it. It being given to me, and almost immediately feeling woozy and saying, “Oh my God.”
Finding out that they would need an emergency caesarean section was a relief for some women who felt very ill. Mairi was glad someone was “taking control”. Claire was relieved when she was told she would need an emergency caesarean section, as she felt too ill and weak to keep going with a vaginal birth. However, at the same, some women felt worried about how the situation and next steps taken might affect their baby.

Staying informed during emergencies

Most women said that, even during the medical emergency, they were kept informed about the unfolding situation. But there were gaps for women who lost consciousness. Kay passed out but remembered being wheeled into surgery: “the next thing I know, the ceiling was moving”.

The information given during emergencies could be quite brief. Aileen thought she wasn’t given much information because she is a neonatal nurse and so her doctors and midwives may have assumed she already understood what would happen after her baby was born. Julie thought there should be more information about emergency caesarean sections given at antenatal appointments and in classes so that women know more about what to expect.

Others said they were given a lot of helpful information when their situation became an emergency. For women who had known in advance that they may need an emergency caesarean section, there had usually been opportunities to meet a neonatologist or paediatrician to discuss their baby’s health. A couple of people were also able to have a look around a neonatal unit. But for some, lots of information at once could be overwhelming and hard to take in. Michael thought there was “possibly a bit of information overload [… as well as a] procession of one doctor after another”. Being upset and frightened could make it harder to process the information. 

Some women remembered having to sign consent forms before their emergency caesarean sections. Samantha X had felt mostly calm until the anaesthetist explained the risks and “all of a sudden you’re having lots of forms shoved at you to sign”. Tracey felt it was “a real smack in the face” having to sign forms about organ donation because it highlights “how serious it is and poorly you are”. Some people would have preferred the communication during their emergency situation to be more sensitive. Tracey remembered her doctor say that her unborn baby was “killing” her, and Kay was told she needed an emergency caesarean section “or you die”.
 

Knowing that an emergency caesarean section was very likely, Samantha X and her husband had the chance to talk with a paediatrician beforehand. She found this really helpful for explaining how her baby was going to be looked after when born.

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Age at interview: 32
Sex: Female
Age at diagnosis: 31
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They were very good actually. They, they told us about, you know, obviously they can’t speak in specifics until a baby’s born, but they, they gave us information about a baby born at 29 weeks gestation, you know, the main concern that we have is for the lungs. I’d had steroids already to already to address, you know, to certainly try and address that issue. They explained to us about some of the likely medication and machinery that, that you’d probably have to go on and you know, how they would sort of deal, deal with the baby in theatre and then take her away and that sort of thing. So, and actually that was really good, because when, I didn’t see her for quite a while, because they wouldn’t let me off of the delivery suite. But when my husband went upstairs and they were using terms like, ‘oh this is the CPAP machine’, he knew what that was and why they were using it. He already knew that and although it was still a big shock for him to see, you know, our daughter in that sort of situation, he did understand what everything was, and why it was there. So I’m really glad that we had someone come and speak to us actually, because, I would, I think otherwise I would have just been completely freaked out and you know, what’s going on, sort of thing. But because they’d talked to us about what you know, a baby at 29 weeks gestations is generally what their condition generally is, it wasn’t such a shock.
 
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Tracey felt her doctors and midwives were so focused on her unborn baby that they didn’t really explain or help her understand what was happening.

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Age at interview: 39
Sex: Female
Age at diagnosis: 29
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I just remember their faces – the panic on their faces, that they knew how poorly I was and they had to do-, get the baby out and that was-, I didn’t feel I was their priority, the baby was their priority – maybe quite rightly so. But it was the-, you know, the panic on them which then took away what they were doing for me but without telling me what was happening. You know, I had no idea. Or maybe they did and I just wasn’t listening; I was pumped full of so many painkillers and, you know, my liver was about to burst out of my chest and, you know, it wasn’t indigestion at all, it was my liver about to burst and, you know, when you hear that that’s what could happen to you, in a little bit of a blasé kind of way. It's an odd feeling just to lie there and just take it; you just put your trust into them.
 

Betty had to sign forms consenting to her caesarean section, but she also felt there were no alternatives and that she was not in the best frame of mind to process information.

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Age at interview: 38
Sex: Female
Age at diagnosis: 37
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How did they make the decisions?

Well I don’t think there were any options. It was get baby out as soon as possible. They were trying to gauge the approach to take to get baby out. We weren’t given the option not to do it, only forms to consent to doing what needed to be done.

So I didn’t think there were any options but I can't imagine myself ever saying, "No, don’t do that," because obviously the risk is that the baby's going to die.

And what was the role of your husband in all this? So, it must be a very challenging situation?

Yes, yes. He did ask about the blood pressure; what should it be. He kept a very close eye on it. He would answer a lot of the questions on my behalf and I'd correct him [laughs]. He didn’t actually look at the consent papers I don’t think, that was given to me which is right but equally I don’t think I was really in the right position to sort of digest it properly, but at the same time what options what are there? They can't… my husband shouldn’t be reading and signing on my behalf, and unless I didn’t want to go ahead with it there was little option other than to sign it. 
Speed and pace in an emergency situation

Often the decision to perform a caesarean section was made very quickly. Betty described a “race against time”. Ruth X remembered that “everything was so unscheduled and unplanned and uncontrolled” with the emergency caesarean section in her first pregnancy; for this reason, she opted for a scheduled (planned) caesarean section the next time. 

Women who had emergency caesarean sections were often surprised how quickly the operation happened. Ruth X said it happened “very, very quickly”. You can read more on the site about the women’s experiences of birth, including both emergency- and planned- caesarean sections.

An emergency situation could develop quickly and suddenly, but there could also be delays and waiting involved. Kate thought she and her doctors had different ideas about how urgent her situation was – she was in a lot of pain but felt her consultant was slow in responding. For some women, their doctors were waiting on test results before taking a particular course of action. Other delays included having to wait for an operating theatre to become available or needing to postpone until a blood thinning medicine had worn off. However, waiting could be dangerous and doctors had to balance these different risks in deciding what to do next.
 

It was only after her second caesarean section which was planned that Mairi realised how quick her emergency caesarean section was.

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Age at interview: 36
Sex: Female
Age at diagnosis: 30
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I remember Stephen being on the left hand side of me just holding my hands. So, I was like this and I remember him holding my hand. And just…I mean we just chatted; it was over with before we even knew, and compared to the second time it was much faster. It was kind of like, "Oh it's a boy." We were like, "My god have you started?" So, I had like I remember not having any… I remember them doing the spray test and then the next thing Alex was here, and again in comparison to the second section it was much, much faster. It was like ages before [second son’s name] was actually born before the time it was like, 'Oh right, eventually he's here,' whereas with Alex it was definitely… I got the spinal, they did the test and then he was here.

Mm. And how did it feel that sort of quickness? So, it seems like…

I thought that was normal.

Things…OK

That was just normal to me, and actually when they… they were taking ages with [second son’s name]. I was like, "God, is everything alright?" but I realised that that was normal, and the speed at which they did the first one wasn’t normal. And again I have no idea what the time was; maybe it wasn’t that fast but I do remember thinking, 'My god like…' again because you don’t feel anything, it's a bit surreal, and I remember them like, "Oh, it's a boy," and I was like, "Oh my God." So and it's only in comparison to the second one to realise how quick that first one was.
 

Josie thought there was a balance of risks in the run-up to her caesarean section. She had recently had an injection to prevent clotting, which meant delaying the operation.

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Age at interview: 45
Sex: Female
Age at diagnosis: 39
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But and then was an issue of the fact that there was no… there were no operating theatres available you know, so I was kind… I felt that it really did feel that night that we were up against it. And I a Doppler scan and there was a real clear sound of the dip in the heartbeat going much, much slower, and so I'd also only just, a few hours beforehand, had the injection for thinning my blood, so they said, "Well we can't do anything until, you know until you get over that anyway; until your blood starts to thicken up again." So, anyway this all went on for, you know most of the night until about four in the morning where they rushed me, or I rushed, I ran, to a… into an operating theatre and he was… yeah he was delivered in about four minutes.

I think that again, you know I just wonder about those decisions that were made at the time about [son’s name] welfare and my welfare, and whether they were having to… having to balance somehow the fact that I was needing this blood clotting thing to work. Had they given me blood clotting… probably I can't remember, I don’t know. That they were, you know just waiting for my blood count to rise was it? My blood count to rise, something, I can't… again I can't remember the technical aspects of it. And that was what was actually holding it up in the end. So, I was having, you know consent forms put at me; I had something in my arm here and something in my arm… you know it was literally… it was so much happening and I was on my own – it was… you know I'd had a lot of friends and family visiting all the time but here I was just on my own surrounded by a lot of doctors, a lot of nurses, a lot of midwives.
Partners were not always with the pregnant woman in the hospital when the emergency developed. Instead, some women had to call or text their partners and tell them what was happening. Samantha X and Aileen’s husbands nearly missed their emergency caesarean section births as a result, and Kelly’s partner didn’t get there in time to be part of it. Michael remembered getting a text message out of the blue to say the baby would be coming today: “That was when I realised that things were a bit more serious”. He was in shock and rushed into the hospital after a “frantic five minutes of ‘grab the baby bag’”.

Sometimes emergency situations resolved quite quickly; other times, it took a while for the situation to gradually improve after treatment or another medical intervention. After giving birth some women were in recovery and they had postnatal care in hospital, before preparing to go home. There could also be impacts on the health of women and their babies. All of these aspects could be affected by having had an emergency medical situation related to pre-eclampsia.
 

Claire had observations taken after she had given birth. She didn’t know that there was a risk of problems developing at this time and thought she and/or her husband should have been told.

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Age at interview: 39
Sex: Female
Age at diagnosis: 39
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The section monitoring, when I came out of theatre it was every five minutes, and all I wanted to do was just to have peace. By this point I had been up for forty eight hours and just wanted… I wanted to be with my baby but that was impossible, and I just wanted to sleep. And you don’t rest when you're being poked and prodded. I get now why they had to do it, but again that wasn’t really explained to me at the time. I think… and maybe, maybe it's a good thing they do play it down; if they're worried about your blood pressure and your heart rate they don’t want to have you unduly worried by saying, "We need to do these obs because things can get worse after delivery." I think for me the moment our daughter was born the anaesthesiologist told us this as well, is my stats immediately started stabilising; my colour changed; I felt better in myself – whether it's psychological or not I don’t know, but you know when your body's reacting like that you think, 'OK, that was the right decision, now let me heal, let me get better,' and so, I think if I was stabilising they probably didn’t want to give me any undue worry.
Concerns afterwards

For some women, it wasn’t until after the emergency situation was over that the fear and worry really kicked in. They reflected on the experience afterwards and realised just how dangerous it was. Some women had met with medical professionals in the weeks, months or even years after having pre-eclampsia. They often said these debriefing meetings had an emotional impact in terms of trying to make sense of what had happened.

Some women wondered whether the emergency could have been prevented. For example, Claire had been discharged 10 days before she was rushed back into hospital and thought perhaps keeping her in could have avoided it becoming “such an emergency at the end”. Julie wondered whether it would have made a difference if she had been induced the day before rather than when it had escalated “to the point where it was horrendous”. At the same time though, she felt grateful that she and her baby were ultimately okay: “if they hadn’t have acted very quickly I think it would have been a very different outcome. Very different”.
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