Immunisation

What is immunisation?

For certain infectious diseases like measles or mumps, once a person has had them and recovered they are almost certain never to catch that disease again. This is because when you get an infectious disease your body makes antibodies against that disease which means that if you are ever exposed to it again - your antibodies in your blood will kill off the bugs before they have any effect.   

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In the UK, babies and young children are routinely immunised against several different infectious diseases. Immunisation of children in the UK is not compulsory as it is in some other countries so parents choose whether or not to have their child immunised.  However, there are very good reasons why we immunise children (see 'Why do we immunise?').   

Safety is always the primary concern in designing a vaccine, and is the first thing that is tested when a new vaccine is going through clinical trials. All potential problems of any kind are thoroughly investigated and excluded before clinical trials are started on children.

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The Immunisation programme in the United Kingdom aims to give children the best possible protection against the widest range of infectious diseases. The recommended immunisations that children should have are as follows:
 

  
Age when vaccine is recommended What vaccine is given No. of 
injections
Pregnant mothers Whooping cough (pertussis)
(Pregnant mothers are now given a whooping cough vaccination between 28-38 weeks to help protect the baby from developing whooping cough in their first few weeks of life. Babies are not vaccinated against whooping cough until they are two months old.)

Inactivated influenza vaccine
One injection










One injection
8 weeks old Diphtheria/Hepatitis B/Tetanus/Whooping cough (Pertussis)/ Polio and HIB (Haemophilus influenzae type b)
known as the 6-in-1(1st dose)
 
& Pneumococcal (PVC) vaccine (1st dose)
& Rotavirus vaccine
(1st dose)
& Meningococcal B (Men B) vaccine (1st dose)
One injection
 
 
 

One injection

Oral vaccine

One injection
 12 weeks old Diphtheria/Hepatitis B/Tetanus/Whooping cough (Pertussis)/ Polio and HIB (Haemophilus influenzae type b)
known as the 6-in-1(2nd dose)
 
& Rotavirus vaccine (2nd dose)
One injection
 
 
 
 

 
Oral vaccine
16 weeks old Diphtheria/Hepatitis B/Tetanus/Whooping cough (Pertussis)/ Polio and HIB (Haemophilus influenzae type b)
known as the 6-in-1(3rd dose)
 
& Pneumococcal (PVC) vaccine (2nd dose)
& Meningococcal B (Men B) vaccine (2nd dose)
One injection
 
 
 
 
One injection
 
One injection
Between 12 and 13 months of age Meningococcal C (Men C) vaccine (1st dose) & Hib booster (4th dose)
 
& Pneumococcal (PVC) vaccine (third dose)
& Measles/Mumps/Rubella (MMR) vaccine(1st dose)
& Meningococcal B (Men B) vaccine (3rd dose)
One injection
 
 
One injection
 
One injection
 
One injection
Children aged 2 to 3 and
all primary school children.
Children aged 2 -17 with long-term health conditions.

Annual flu vaccine.
The existing flu immunisation programme will be extended over a number of years to include all children aged two to 16 inclusive.
One nasal spray
Between 3 years, 4 months and 5 years Diphtheria/Tetanus/Pertussis (whooping cough)/ and Polio (DTaP/IPV) known as the 4-in-1 (pre-school booster)
 
& MMR booster (2nd dose)
One injection
 
 
One injection
Girls and boys aged 12 -13 years Human Papilloma virus (HPV) Vaccine (two doses 6-24 months apart) Two injections
14 years (school year 9) Tetanus/diphtheria (adult type)/Inactivated Polio Vaccine (Td/IPV) 3-in-1 teenage booster
 
& Meningococcal ACWY vaccine
One injection
 
 
 
One injection
19-25 years (first-time students only Meningococcal ACWY vaccine One injection
 


The immunisation clinics that you will be asked to attend with your baby are run by the general practice where you and your child are registered. You should receive an appointment letter when your child's immunisation is due. If you have any questions about your child's immunisations talk to your GP or health visitor. Details of your baby's immunisation schedule will also be available to you in your 'parent held' - Child Health Record. The immunisations for teenagers are usually arranged in schools.

 

Last reviewed August 2019
Last updated August 2019

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